TERMS AND SIGNS USED IN OLDEN DAYS
Wapentakes of the Northern Counties corresponded to the Hundreds of the Southern Shires. They were originally formed by counting heads of families.
Gylds consisted of ten heads of families who banded themselves together for the maintenance of peace. The gylds in turn formed the wapcntakes or hundreds.
Geld or Danegeld. This was a tax upon the land assessed by King Ethelred to buy off the Danes. It was made permanent, and annually collected for the King’s purposes. It amounted to 6s. on the carucate, or is. on the bovate, and was thus a tax of 6s. in the £i.
Soc was the power to hold a court for the purpose of collecting the Danegeld.
Manor, Demesne or Lordship was the estate of an English `theyn’ or landowner. Part of his land was retained by the owner of the manor, the remainder being distributed to substantial tenants called Villeins who bound themselves for safety’s sake to the soil and the theyn. They paid rent by service to the Lord of the Manor. Small tenants—holding five acres were called Bordars because they paid rent in kind to the table or board of their lord. There were also landless men called Labourers who had their cottage and garden, and the privilege of turning out their beasts on to the waste land of the manor. They worked on the home farm all through the year.
Carucate or Hide was about fifty acres in extent. It was the land that could be managed by one plough and the beasts belonging to it, together with an adequate amount of woodland pasture. The amount varied, as the land was heavy or light, rich or poor, from 120 to 150 acres. The rent charged was 19s. per carucate, which means about 10s. to 11s. of our present money, per acre.
Bovate or Oxgang referred to as much arable land as one ox could plough in a year. It varied from six to eight acres, with the proportionate amount of woodland pasture. There were six bovates in a carucate.
Virgate was a measure of pasture. There were four virgates in a carucate.
Mills (which were water rather than wind mills), formed a source of income to each manor, since the tenants might only grind their corn at the lord’s mill. Some mills ground only for the people of the manor, but others were let for a rent in money or kind. Money paid for such use ranged from 5s. to 15s.
Woodland was valued for the feed it provided from its oak trees, for the swine of the villagers.
Leuca was a distance approximating to 2,560 yards, representing about one and a half miles. Twelve quarantana made one leuca, so a quarantana equalled an English furlong.
Hatchment. A hatchment was a tablet affixed to the front of the house in which lived a distinguished person. It was decorated with the armorial bearings of the individual, and was taken down and carried at the head of his funeral procession. Occasionally, after the ceremony of burial it was hung in the parish church.
The sign j. In various records the sign of ‘j’ appears, and some may wonder what it signifies. It is the final ‘I’ of an amount in pounds, shillings or pence. Thus £ij, siij, diiij is £2 3s. 4d. of the money then used.
THE MINISTERS WHO HAVE SERVED IN THE
MANSFIELD AND SOUTHWELL CIRCUITS
1850 John Crown: John P. Lockwood
1852 John P. Lockwood: Joshua Mottram
1853 William B. Dennis: Joshua Mottram
1854 William B. Dennis: John Bonser, B.A.
1856 Paul Orchard Senr.: John Bonser, B.A.
1857 George Hobill: John J. Dredge
1858 John Weevil: George Buttle
1860 Francis S. Keeling: Joseph Whitehead
1863 Henry J. Staley: John Pogson
1864 Henry J. Staley: John Pogson: Thomas H. Griffiths
1865 Henry J. Staley: John Pogson: Henry Scholefield
1866 William Parsonson: Caleb Foster: William J. Hedley
1868 . William Parsonson: Caleb Foster: Nathaniel Stevens
1869 Henry Hine: Isaac E. Page: Nathaniel Stevens
1871 Henry Hine: Isaac E. Page: John Smith (B)
1872 Samuel Wray: James Hind: John Smith (B)
1875 Jabez Chambers
1878 William Calvert
1881 William Hill
1883 Joseph Gibson
1886 William T. Gill
1889 Frederick C. Dugdale
1892 Robert Nicholson
1895 Henry Wadsworth
1898 Elias T. Sanford
1901 Thomas Rowson
1904 Ralph Bradley
1907 Christopher Whitfield
1910 Ernest Ogden
1913 Adam Hann
1914 F. H. Hooper Labbett
1918 William Hoad
1922 George A. Swaine, B.A.
1925 Henry J. Lundy
1928 J. Chesworth Jackson
1931 W. Carvosso Carlyon
1938 John W. Almond
1944 William Dawson
1949 Frederick W. Hutchinson
1954 Arthur E. Rowe
Preface and Introduction
Chapter 1 – Nottinghamshire in the Olden days
Chapter 2 – Oxton in Olden Days
Chapter 3 -Oxton in the Nineteenth Century
Chapter 4 – The Chapels at Oxton
Chapter 5 – The People of the Village
Chapter 6 – The Charities Parish Church Hall and Village of Oxton
Chapter 7 – The Towns and Villages Roundabout